The aim of this Cochrane Review was to find out whether healthcare workers who receive information from questionnaires completed by their patients give better health care and whether their patients have better health.

Patient‐reported outcomes measures (PROMs) assess a patient’s subjective appraisal of health outcomes from their own perspective. Despite hypothesised benefits that feedback on PROMs can support decision‐making in clinical practice and improve outcomes, there is uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of PROMs feedback.

To assess the effects of PROMs feedback to patients, or healthcare workers, or both on patient‐reported health outcomes and processes of care.

Search methods
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, two other databases and two clinical trial registries on 5 October 2020. We searched grey literature and consulted experts in the field.

Selection criteria
Two review authors independently screened and selected studies for inclusion. We included randomised trials directly comparing the effects on outcomes and processes of care of PROMs feedback to healthcare professionals and patients, or both with the impact of not providing such information.

Data collection and analysis
Two groups of two authors independently extracted data from the included studies and evaluated study quality. We followed standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. We conducted meta‐analyses of the results where possible.

Main results
We identified 116 randomised trials which assessed the effectiveness of PROMs feedback in improving processes or outcomes of care, or both in a broad range of disciplines including psychiatry, primary care, and oncology. Studies were conducted across diverse ambulatory primary and secondary care settings in North America, Europe and Australasia. A total of 49,785 patients were included across all the studies.

The certainty of the evidence varied between very low and moderate. Many of the studies included in the review were at risk of performance and detection bias.

The evidence suggests moderate certainty that PROMs feedback probably improves quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.26; 11 studies; 2687 participants), and leads to an increase in patient‐physician communication (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.52; 5 studies; 658 participants), diagnosis and notation (risk ratio (RR) 1.73, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.08; 21 studies; 7223 participants), and disease control (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.41; 14 studies; 2806 participants). The intervention probably makes little or no difference for general health perceptions (SMD 0.04, 95% CI ‐0.17 to 0.24; 2 studies, 552 participants; low‐certainty evidence), social functioning (SMD 0.02, 95% CI ‐0.06 to 0.09; 15 studies; 2632 participants; moderate‐certainty evidence), and pain (SMD 0.00, 95% CI ‐0.09 to 0.08; 9 studies; 2386 participants; moderate‐certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of PROMs feedback on physical functioning (14 studies; 2788 participants) and mental functioning (34 studies; 7782 participants), as well as fatigue (4 studies; 741 participants), as the certainty of the evidence was very low. We did not find studies reporting on adverse effects defined as distress following or related to PROM completion.

Authors’ conclusions
PROM feedback probably produces moderate improvements in communication between healthcare professionals and patients as well as in diagnosis and notation, and disease control, and small improvements to quality of life. Our confidence in the effects is limited by the risk of bias, heterogeneity and small number of trials conducted to assess outcomes of interest. It is unclear whether many of these improvements are clinically meaningful or sustainable in the long term. There is a need for more high‐quality studies in this area, particularly studies which employ cluster designs and utilise techniques to maintain allocation concealment.

Gibbons, C., Porter, I., Gonçalves-Bradley, D. C., Stoilov, S., Ricci-Cabello, I., Tsangaris, E., … & Valderas, J. M. (2021). Routine provision of feedback from patient‐reported outcome measurements to healthcare providers and patients in clinical practice. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10).